Great Rivers Environmental Law Center

Great Rivers Represents NRDC, Advocates in favor of Energy Efficiency Programs

Environmental Lawyer Henry Robertson

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is happy to support the utilities when they support energy efficiency measures – and oppose them when they want to keep burning coal. Great Rivers’s Climate and Energy Director Henry Robertson recently represented the Natural Resources Defense Council to advocate in favor of Evergy’s energy efficiency offerings to their customers. Evergy, formerly Kansas City Power & Light, is a utility providing energy to approximately 1/3 of Missouri and 1.6 million customers.

Evergy needed approval of their plan from the Public Service Commission,* but faced opposition from the Staff of the Commission, who argued that the only benefit from energy efficiency measures is the cost saved when you don’t have to build new or additional power plants years down the road. The Staff grossly underestimated the value that increased energy efficiency offerings would bring to the people of Missouri.

Great Rivers’ Climate and Energy Director Henry Robertson argued that the benefits of energy efficiency are myriad – while the reduction in the need for future capital investment is valuable, it certainly is not the only benefit.

“Energy efficiency saves energy and therefore money – no kilowatt-hour is cheaper than the kilowatt-hour you don’t have to use. ”


Henry Robertson
Climate and Energy Program Director, Great Rivers Environmental Law Center

Energy efficiency also reduces the pollution that jeopardizes public health, and the greenhouse gas emissions that choke our atmosphere.   While customers must pay the utility to administer the programs, this cost is greatly outweighed by these benefits.

On Decemer 13, 2019, the PSC granted approval of Evergy’s plan, with some modifications. As a result, Evergy will be able to invest $96 million dollars in energy efficiency programs and achieve an anticipated $234 million in customer savings. 

Measures to increase energy efficiency programs such as those Evergy proposed can be especially helpful to low-income consumers, who must spend a higher percentage of their income on energy needs. Evergy’s plan is a step in the right direction for Missouri, both for those who will see lower bills and cleaner air, and for the global community which is affected by the energy decisions we make right here at home.

We are grateful to the Natural Resources Defense Council for their partnership in this matter.

  • The Public Service Commission, or PSC, regulates investor-owned utilities to ensure that customers receive safe, reliable and affordable energy.

Great Rivers Files Comments Opposing Maryland Heights’ Myopic Plan to Develop Floodplain at Taxpayers’ Expense

The City of Maryland Height’s proposal for over $85,000,000 in tax incentives would jeopardize downstream citizens, vulnerable wildlife, and the funding of vital community services reliant on local tax financing.

Great Rivers filed comments before the St. Louis County TIF commission voicing opposition to the proposal. You can read the full comments here.

Change Starts With You

Eva Kappas

by Eva Kappas, Guest Writer

My name is Eva and I’m fifteen years old. Every 4th of July since I was little, my family and I have gone down to southern Missouri, where we have a lot of relatives. There’s a tiny cabin there that my grandmother lived in when she was little that sits right on the bank of a river. Every year, my cousins and brothers and I float down the river, make s’mores and play soccer in the dewy grass. My brothers and cousins like to catch fish and throw them back into the river from a dock that has been flooded, repaired and rebuilt many times.

Because like all rivers, the river floods when it rains, and it washes up over the dock. But each year the rain gets a little bit stronger, and the dock goes from getting damaged to completely uprooted. I don’t want to see the water become more acidic, the algae bloom, or fish die, as will inevitably happen as a result of climate change. But my generation will be dealing with the effects of today’s pollution.

Other weather has gotten more intense, too, like the tornadoes barreling down tornado alley. I was eight when the Joplin tornado leveled my great-grandmother’s house. I remember driving past the piles of splintered wooden beams, crushed living room couches with the stuffing spilling out, and the occasional tricycle peeking out of the rubble.

I am choosing to fight for a livable future for my family, and for the beautiful spaces that still exist on this planet. I am also choosing to fight for good jobs and an equitable future, because my experience still pales in comparison to others’ reality in the face of the climate crisis.

I am not a part of a frontline community. I have never had to wonder where my next meal was coming from, or drink lead-contaminated tap water — which is why I have all the more responsibility to make a change. We aren’t just fighting for ourselves, we’re fighting for the planet. And it’s easier to let it go. It’s easier to say, “oh, climate change is someone else’s problem.” But action is crucial. For refugees forced to flee their homes from rising sea levels, for the bees that are the backbone of our ecosystem, for brilliantly colored coral reefs and for everyone who breathes the oxygen of the Amazon and drinks what freshwater we have left. But in order to sustain this ecosystem, and support the people who have already suffered the most from the climate crisis, we need changes that will last.

The change starts with you. The greatest power we are afforded in this country is the power to vote, so use it. Making clean energy options available for households and institutions and sourcing government utilities from clean energy are the first steps to a carbon-neutral state. We need measures to promote the use of clean energy and to phase out the fossil fuels that are blackening our skies and suffocating our ecosystem. This is an emergency, and we have to act like it.


I know you all know we need to take these steps. So now I turn to our policy makers: Politicians: Will you continue to stall while our generation dies, or will you choose to lead with courage, and do what is right to protect our country and our future? If we can make this choice — if our politicians will join us in making this choice — then we have a chance at saving the people and places that we love. We have a chance at stopping climate change.

VICTORY! 1,000 New Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Coming Soon to Missouri

Electric Vehicle Charging
Henry Robertson
Henry Robertson leads Great Rivers Climate and Energy Program

For the past 18 months, Great Rivers’ Climate and Energy Director Henry Robertson has served as legal representative of both the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Sierra Club before Missouri’s Public Service Commission in support of Ameren Missouri’s electric vehicle (EV) program.

The PSC’s decision, announced last week, will allow Ameren to invest approximately six million dollars in their “Charge Ahead” program, providing incentives to build EV charging infrastructure at workplaces, multi-family dwellings and at public places like businesses for “around town” charging.

The move is intended to encourage the installation of electric vehicle charging stations in targeted locations where infrastructure is necessary to support customer purchase of cleaner, more efficient electric vehicles. The first charging stations are planned to be installed by the end of this year, with all stations to be installed by the end of 2020.

EVs are coming down in price, and it’s cheaper to charge than to fill up a gas tank.

It is a strange but welcome change to find ourselves advocating on behalf of Ameren Missouri, to bring reduced emissions and cleaner air to Missouri’s citizens.

The transportation sector generates the largest share of all national greenhouse gas emissions (approximately 28.9 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in 2017). While we still have a long way to go in making sure that the sector uses electricity generated by renewable sources, this week’s victory advances that goal. It is a positive step toward much-needed improvement of air quality in the region and reducing our production of climate-change causing emissions.

Great Rivers’ President Bruce Morrison Named to Best Lawyers in America 2020

Bruce Morrison

August 16, 2019

Best Lawyers®, the oldest and most highly respected peer review guide to excellence in the legal profession, has named Bruce A. Morrison to its 2020 edition of The Best Lawyers in America in the practice area of Environmental Litigation.

Mr. Morrison has served the people of Missouri through his work at Great Rivers since its founding in 2002. After serving as General Counsel for many years, he assumed leadership of the center in September of 2019. His work has included issues affecting water quality, air pollution, floodplains and wetlands preservation, the protection of parks and open space, and environmental justice.

“Bruce’s passionate and competent protection of Missouri’s environment and the health of our citizens is unwavering. He is an icon among environmental attorneys in our country”.

– Steve Mahfood, Great Rivers’ Board of Directors

Since it was first published in 1983, Best Lawyers has become universally regarded as the definitive guide to legal excellence. Best Lawyers lists are compiled based on an exhaustive peer-review evaluation. Almost 87,000 leading lawyers globally are eligible to vote, and Best Lawyers received almost 10 million evaluations on the legal abilities of other lawyers based on their specific practice areas around the world. Lawyers are not required or allowed to pay a fee to be listed; therefore inclusion in Best Lawyers is considered a singular honor. Corporate Counsel magazine has called Best Lawyers, “the most respected referral list of attorneys in practice.”

Success! Subsidized Development of 2,409 acres Abutting Wetlands and Creve Coeur Park CANCELLED

The Maryland Heights TIF Commission has voted down a controversial proposal by the City of Maryland Heights to fund a commercial development in a frequently flooded area bordering the Missouri river using $151 million of tax increment financing. The Commission rejected the proposal following vocal opposition by concerned citizens and environmental organizations at several public hearings and written comments from Great Rivers Environmental Law Center raising legal concerns about the development plan.

The City of Maryland Heights proposed a TIF district to install pumps and levees in the Maryland Park Lake District, facilitating the installation of a 2,409-acre mixed-use development. This area bordering Creve Coeur Park currently consists of mostly undeveloped land and farmland, and abuts the wetlands located in and around Creve Coeur Park. The National Audubon Society considers those wetlands an “urban oasis” for the habitat they provide for many migrating waders, waterfowl, and shorebirds, and they are a cherished oasis for the birders who come to see them.

American Bittern ( (Botaurus lentiginosus)
The Audubon Society noted that, “there is evidence of breeding American Bittern at Creve Coeur Lake, and that Least Bittern, Pied-billed Grebe, and Common Moorhen have all been observed there during their respective breeding seasons. King, Virginia, and Black Rails have been observed there as well. [1]

Great Rivers’ attorneys Bob Menees and Sarah Rubenstein seconded concerns voiced by many – that the project would destroy important habitat, and that it would exacerbate flooding conditions downstream of the development, jeopardizing the safety of nearby communities.

Unfortunately, those very valid concerns – consistently raised at several community hearings – seemed to fall on deaf ears as the TIF Commission continued to entertain the idea of placing unnecessary and incompatible developments in the flood-prone area.

When the TIF Commission sought public comments on the project, Great Rivers analyzed the legality of utilizing tax-increment financing (TIF) to subsidize the development, and brought the legal shortcomings of the proposal to the attention of the TIF Commission. On December 17, one day before the Commission was set to vote on the Plan, Great Rivers submitted comments arguing that the Development Plan did not comply with the TIF Act because:

  • it did not demonstrate a predominance of blighting factors in the proposed development;
  • it did not demonstrate that development would not happen in the area “but for” TIF funds; and
  • it did not comply with the City of Maryland Heights’ Comprehensive Plan.

On December 18th, the TIF Commission surprised the crowd assembled at Maryland Heights City Hall by announcing that they were delaying their vote to consider comments received. On January 3, they further surprised onlookers as they voted to reject the Plan.

“The TIF Commission NO vote provides a critical pause in this latest push to develop the area, and we are thankful for Great Rivers’ work in helping to achieve that outcome.”

-Mitch Leachman, Executive Director of the St. Louis Audubon Society

Great Rivers is grateful to the TIF Commission members who voted against the proposal, to the many community members who voiced their concerns, and to Great Rivers Habitat Alliance and the St. Louis Audubon Society for their opposition of this development.


[1] https://www.audubon.org/important-bird-areas/st-louis-urban-oases-19

Board of Aldermen President Lewis Reed announces release of 100% Clean Energy Plan for St. Louis

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center

Great Rivers’ Attorney and Climate and Energy Director Henry Robertson and other Committee Members will share the findings of the City’s 100% Clean Energy Plan.

via Mary Ries
Legislative Director to Board of Aldermen President Lewis E. Reed

Board of Aldermen President Lewis Reed announced today that he will share the findings of the City’s 100% Clean Energy Plan on Monday, Nov. 18 at 6 p.m. during the Board of Aldermen Legislation Committee Meeting at City Hall. 

For more than 18 months, a dedicated group of volunteer consultants have worked to develop a 100% Clean Energy Plan through a transparent and inclusive stakeholder process, which provides ways for the City to meet the 100% clean energy goal.

“St. Louis is the largest Midwestern City to commit to such an ambitious goal. St. Louis is taking the lead and acknowledging the threat of climate change. This is a serious issue in our world, which we need to address,” said Reed.

The 100% clean energy goal was established by the unanimous passage of Resolution 124 by the Board of Aldermen. 

“The volunteer consultants have spent hundreds of hours working in the community and seeking input to draft a set of recommendations that focus on reducing emissions for our City; saving the City and residents money; creating jobs; and ensuring equitable access for our residents. On behalf of the City of St. Louis, I would like to thank them all for their extreme generosity to the future of our City,” said Reed. 

BACKGROUND: On October 27, 2017, the St. Louis Board of Aldermen unanimously adopted Resolution 124, sponsored by Board President Lewis Reed, which established a goal for St. Louis to move to 100% clean energy in the electricity sector by 2035. At that time, St. Louis became the 47th City in the nation, and the largest in the Midwest, to adopt such a goal. Resolution 124 also established a process for developing a plan to meet that ambitious 100% clean energy goal. This Report is the result of that process. 

Learn more at www.stlouis-mo.gov/clean-energy 

The meeting is open to the public.

Small Environmental Law Center Receives Recognition as a 2020 “Best Law Firm” for their Services to Protect the Environment and Preserve the Public Health.

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center (“Great Rivers”) is pleased to announce that it has been recognized as a Tier 1 Metropolitan “Best Law Firm” in Environmental Litigation by U.S. News- Best Lawyers, in 2020. Best Lawyers “Best Law Firms” are recognized for professional excellence with consistently impressive ratings from clients and peers. Bruce Morrison, Great Rivers’ newly-elected President and former General Counsel, was also recognized by U.S. News- Best Lawyers as a Best Lawyer in Environmental Litigation, for the 9th consecutive year.

Great Rivers is a nonprofit public interest law firm whose mission is to enhance clean air, water and energy, to preserve wetlands and parks, and to promote the public health. It provides legal services for free or at reduced rates to citizens and organizations in asserting and defending their rights before administrative officials and as a last resort before the courts. It also drafts legislation and initiative petitions and works to enforce existing laws and regulations. It has provided free and reduced fee legal representation to individuals experiencing threats of pollution or destruction to their environment, and to environmental organizations and citizens’ groups in St. Louis, Rolla, Crystal City, Franklin County and the Kansas City area.

Great Rivers is the only nonprofit environmental law firm in Missouri and Southern Illinois.

Great Rivers Proudly Welcomes Sarah Rubenstein

Sarah joins Great Rivers as a staff attorney after gathering more than 20 years of successful litigation practice both in private practice and at the Interdisciplinary Environmental Clinic at Washington University School of Law. In her previous work she has represented both individuals and companies in various environmental litigation matters including Clean Air and Water Act citizen suits, Superfund cost-recovery actions, toxic torts, and environmental property damage cases.

Sarah graduated magna cum laude from Amherst College in 1992 and the University of Chicago Law School in 1997, where she pursued her law degree out of her concern for and interest in protecting the environment. She is excited to be able to return full-time to her original mission.

“I am excited to join Great Rivers, as it will allow me to use my legal skills to help reduce pollution in our region. I look forward to working hand in hand with local stakeholders to help make our environment a better place for future generations.” – Sarah Rubenstein

When she is not fighting to preserve our natural world, Sarah can be found playing with her dogs, riding horses, tending her vegetable garden, or traveling the globe.

A Tribute to Joseph Logan by Kathleen Henry

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center mourns the loss of Joseph (“Joe”) P. Logan, who died Wednesday, September 4, 2019 at the age of 98. In 2008, Great Rivers presented Joe with Great Rivers’ first and only “Distinguished Service Award” for Joe’s unwavering support of Great Rivers.

Joe was born in Topeka, Kansas in 1921. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1942. He served in the Navy during World War II, as gunnery officer aboard the USS Hambleton DD 455 destroyer, and took part in the D-day landing at Normandy on June 6, 1944. After the war, he attended Harvard Law School and received his JD in 1948. He and his wife, Yvonne, were married in 1943 and lived in Webster Groves from 1951 until a few years ago, that is, when they were not up at Lake Michigan, sailing and swimming.

Joe joined the law offices of Thompson Coburn in 1948, where he worked until recently doing probate and estate planning. He was an active in volunteer work for the Ranken Jordan Home for Convalescent Crippled Children and the First Congregational Church of Webster Groves for more than four decades. In addition, he served on the board of the American Civil Liberties Union for many years.

Joe has spent decades working for environmental groups. He was one of the earliest leaders of the Open Space Council, founded in 1965, the Open Space Foundation, founded in 1967, and of the Missouri Coalition for the Environment, founded in 1969, and he assisted them well into the 1990’s. He showed his appreciation for the environment by going on countless float trips on Missouri streams with the Dreys, Buders and Greens. After a hard night on the gravel bars, this group started its mornings with a “Shannon County” juice, a mixture of gin and orange juice.

When Lewis Green was planning the Great Rivers Environmental Law Center during the years of 1998 to 2002, he often consulted Joe. After Lewis’ death in 2003, Joe continued to provide support to the Law Center. He organized the Tribute Dinner to Lewis Green in 2004 and served as Honorary Chairman of the Annual Dinner of Great Rivers in 2006 and 2007. Great Rivers is fortunate to have had Joe’s wisdom and support throughout the law center’s first six years.”

For all of our years, Joe continued his unwavering support of Great Rivers, attending our events and enthusiastically embracing our work. Joe was a dear friend and we will miss him.