Great Rivers Environmental Law Center

Ethan Thompson Joins Great Rivers

Great Rivers welcomes our newest staff attorney, Ethan Thompson, to the team. Ethan received his JD from Washington University in St. Louis and his Masters of Political Science from Central European University in Budapest, Hungary.

While studying for his JD, Ethan worked at the University’s Interdisciplinary Environmental Law Clinic and was awarded the Mary Colier Hitchcock Prize for his work on The Washington University Journal of Law & Policy. He clerked for the Maryland Attorney General and then at the Environment & Natural Resources Division of the United States Department of Justice.

In his spare time, he enjoys playing trombone, coaching youth baseball, and hiking and swimming around the Potomac River. He will move from the DC area to St. Louis in January 2022.

Resolution to Increase Solar Opportunities Reached; Advocacy for Accelerated Coal Retirements Continues

Through our Climate and Energy Program, we work to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and encourage cleaner energy. Missouri’s electricity is among the most coal-intensive in the country. Our utilities’ coal-burning power plants are old and lack up-to-date pollution controls, which keep them relatively cheap at the expense of the public’s health and a stable climate. We regularly appear before the Missouri Public Service Commission (PSC) to press Missouri’s investor-owned utilities for change.

Ameren Missouri’s Energy Plan

Before the PSC on Ameren Missouri’s triennial long-range (20-year) plan, we represented traditional environmental advocates – Sierra Club and Natural Resources Defense Council – along with environmental justice organizations the Missouri NAACP, Dutchtown South Community Corporation, and New Northside Missionary Baptist Church.

In June 2021, we reached a joint resolution with Ameren Missouri that addressed many of the deficiencies and concerns raised by our five clients. Included among the solutions is a commitment by Ameren Missouri to continue to identify opportunities that benefit underserved communities through the deployment of renewable resources, efficient electrification, and energy savings programs. Potential benefits within underserved communities will include building envelope efficiency measures for tenants, tree planting programs, job training services, and solar opportunities for low-income communities with workforce development options.

Evergy’s Energy and Electrification Plans

On Evergy’s triennial long-range (20-year) plan, we have intervened for Sierra Club. We’ll be pushing Evergy for accelerated coal retirements. We also spent a chunk of October in front of the PSC on Evergy’s plan to electrify transportation, representing Sierra Club and Natural Resources Defense Council. We generally support the electrification of transportation, which is a way to get off our oil addiction and clean the air.

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

Combatting the Threat of PFAS

PFAS – A Pressing Threat

A group of chemicals called “PFAS” (Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances) are commonly tagged as “forever chemicals.” They are man-made and they don’t break down. When they get into our waters they can travel far from their original discharge sites.  If people or animals eat food or drink water that contains PFAS, the PFAS are absorbed and accumulate in the body. PFAS levels can accumulate to a point where humans will suffer adverse health consequences.

High levels of PFAS can lead to increased cholesterol, decreased vaccine response, changes in liver enzymes, increased risk of high blood pressure or pre-eclampsia in pregnant women, decreases in infant birth weights, and increased risk of cancer.  

In October 2021 USEPA released its “PFAS Strategic Roadmap: EPA’s Commitments to Action 2021-2024”, in which its Administrator acknowledges, “As the science has continued to develop, we know more now than ever about how PFAS build up in our bodies over long periods of time, and how they can cause adverse health effects that can devastate families.”

Sugar Camp Energy owns and operates the Sugar Camp Energy mining complex in Macedonia, Franklin County, Illinois. The company conducts underground mining operations at the Mine using the “longwall” method. Attempting to extinguish a fire that had been smoldering at the Mine, Sugar Camp Energy pumped more than 46,000 gallons of firefighting foam into the Mine beginning in mid-August. To disperse the foam into the Mine, the Company drilled six wells. The foam was mixed in two earthen pits and pumped into two of the wells.

In September 2021, citizens and local water district officials documented foam floating on the surface of an unnamed tributary of Akin Creek and in nearby farm field ditches. The foam was also observed to be spread on nearby farm fields.

Although representatives of Sugar Camp Energy asserted to IEPA that the foam used by the company is “biodegradable, will not harm fish or wildlife, and will not destroy or retard new forest growth”, most of the products Sugar Camp used to fight the fire are toxic and have not been shown to be actually biodegradable, as noted in the Material Safety Data Sheet files for the products themselves. In fact, two of the foam products used contain PFAS chemicals. Samples collected by IEPA from nearby surface water locations were found to contain PFAS in concentrations higher than EPA health advisory levels, Illinois drinking water health advisory levels, and Illinois draft groundwater standards.

In October 2021, for Sierra Club and Prairie Rivers Network, Great Rivers served notice of intent to bring a citizen suit against Sugar Camp Energy and American Consolidated Natural Resources under the federal Clean Water Act and the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act.

If Sugar Camp Energy does not fully comply with federal law by containing, destroying, and removing the foam from the Mine and remediating impacted surface and groundwater, Great Rivers, Sierra Club, and Prairie Rivers Network intend to file a citizens’ suit seeking civil penalties and for an injunction compelling compliance with federal law.

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

Cleaning Up the Hyde Park Neighborhood

In our Environmental Justice program, we work mostly in Missouri’s urban spaces where there are few, if any, wild spaces. Still, the land there is every bit as precious to those who call it home.

For far too many years an industrial facility in the St. Louis’ Hyde Park Neighborhood has been using parcels of property for what appears to be an unpermitted junkyard. The properties often are littered with trash. They create drainage issues and other problems for their neighbors. In the past, we have asked the business to abate the nuisances, but they have continued undeterred. For too many years now, the properties have presented a threat to the health, safety, and well-being of neighboring residents.

The Hyde Park Neighborhood Association of North St. Louis works hard to improve the quality of life in the Hyde Park Neighborhood by combatting forces that contribute to decreased housing values, criminal activity, and promote disinvestment from their community. It has asked for our help on this one.

In mid-September, we gave formal notice of the nuisance conditions and of our intent to seek relief in court to abate the nuisances.

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

An Update From Our Sustainable Lands Program

In the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR), Great Rivers is defending a lawsuit in which Shannon County seeks a judgment that tracts of land within the ONSR are “burdened by public roads no less than thirty feet in width,” even though these roads cease to exist in the United States Department of Interior’s recently published Roads and Trails Management Plan.

We believe that these requested roads are illegal and have no place in the ONSR. Fifty years ago, Leo and Kay Drey conveyed an easement to the United States over these same tracts of land for the “preservation of the scenic and other natural values” in the ONSR.  These roads would violate the easement and degrade the park.

Through our Sustainable Lands Program, we protect Missouri’s special wild places – our parks, forests and wilderness areas.

In Howell County, Missouri along the Eleven Point River, Great Rivers is standing behind a community that opposes a proposed mining operation.

The proposed mine lies within an area of significant karst development. There are forty-nine sinkholes and miles of losing stream within a five-mile radius of the proposed mine, as well as numerous drinking water wells. The mine also lies within the recharge area of Greer Spring, the second largest spring in Missouri which discharges upwards of 220 million gallons per day to the Eleven Point River. According to Geologists and Scientists retained by the community, “Unless this site has unique and valuable rock or mineral resources, this is precisely the kind of site that prudent and responsible mining operators have learned from experience to avoid”.

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

President’s Letter

When it comes to environmental protection, Congress may be stuck at the moment, but there is no slowing down at Great Rivers.

From protecting Missouri’s special wild places through our Sustainable Lands Program to protecting communities in our built environment through our Environmental Justice Program, we press ahead. We race to confront threats to our waters and to the air we breathe. With urgency, we work to decrease carbon emissions and transition to clean energy through our Climate and Energy Program.

A few weeks ago, we were able to gather in person with many of you for the first time in two years. We gave thanks to two long-time Great Rivers’ colleagues, the late Senator Wayne Goode, and our just-retired Henry Robertson. The handshakes, hugs, and well-wishes we exchanged gave us a great lift!

Speaking of Henry, he speaks out in this newsletter on the Spire pipeline controversy. Though retired, Henry still is working to address climate and energy issues. We also introduce a new voice, Ethan Thompson, the newest member of our Great Rivers’ team.

Bruce Morrison

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

Will We Freeze This Winter? A Response to Spire.


You probably saw an email that Spire sent to all its customers on November 4. It panicked a lot of people into thinking they’ll lose heat in December if the new Spire STL gas pipeline shuts down.

Henry Robertson
Henry Robertson retired in 2021 after serving as Great Rivers Environmental Law Center’s Climate and Energy Program Director for many years.

Don’t worry, it won’t be shut down. Spire isn’t telling the whole truth, which is that it’s scare-mongering to escape a dilemma of its own making. 

Like any utility, Spire profits from building new infrastructure that its ratepayers — us — have to pay for. An interstate pipeline like the Spire STL has to be approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). To get a certificate to build it, Spire had to convince FERC that there was a need for this pipeline. Spire thought it could get this past FERC. That was a good bet; FERC has hardly ever seen a pipeline proposal it didn’t like.

In fact, there was no need. Spire even had to admit to FERC that there was no shortage of gas supply to the St. Louis region. They held an “open house” to see if any natural gas shipper would agree to use the new pipeline. Not one was interested.

So Spire submitted to FERC an agreement it signed with its fully owned subsidiary Spire Missouri (formerly Laclede Gas) as the sole customer for this pipeline. FERC rubber-stamped the application.

But this was too much for the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. They threw out the approval because Spire had engaged in “self-dealing” with its own affiliate. Since that decision Spire has mounted a massive lobbying campaign trying to blame someone else for the consequences of its own actions.

FERC will not let us freeze this winter. But next year it will have to reconsider Spire’s application and decide if Spire’s wrongdoing can be safely undone.


Henry Robertson
November 7, 2021

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

Notice Filed of Intent to Sue Coal Mine Operator over Illegal Discharge of PFAS-Laden Foam

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 
Monday, November 1, 2021

Contacts: Hannah Lee Flath, hannahlee.flath@sierraclub.org, 860-634-0225 
Andrew Rehn, arehn@prairierivers.org, 708-305-6181
Linden Mueller, linden@greatriverslaw.org, 314-231-4181 

AKIN, IL. — Today, Sierra Club Illinois and the Prairie Rivers Network, represented by Great Rivers Environmental Law Center and Albert Ettinger, announced that they filed a Notice of Intent to sue Sugar Camp Energy LLC and American Consolidated Natural Resources due to the Sugar Camp coal mine’s violations of the Clean Water Act, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This announcement comes on the heels of the report that operators at the Sugar Camp Mine dumped 46,000 gallons of fire fighting foam, including at least 660 gallons of concentrated PFAS-based foam deep into the underground mine in an unsuccessful attempt to extinguish a fire that has been burning underground for the past two months. 

“The use of firefighting foam containing toxic PFAS chemicals at Sugar Camp Mine poses a threat to the public health of the nearby community and the surrounding environment, and Sugar Camp Energy must be held accountable,” says Sierra Club Illinois Director Jack Darin. “Sugar Camp Energy’s violations of the Clean Water Act, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA), and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act are just the latest reminder that Illinois must move beyond coal and transition to a safer, renewable energy future. That future starts with holding coal companies accountable for their actions and protecting communities from further harm.” 

Despite claims from the Sugar Camp coal mine that the foam used by the company in an attempt to extinguish the fire was “biodegradable” and would not “harm fish or wildlife and will not destroy or retard new forest growth,” much of the firefighting foam used at the mine is, in fact, highly toxic, and some contain PFAS. PFAS, or per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, are highly persistent “forever chemicals” that, when ingested, can lead to serious health problems including cancer and organ and immune system damage. Studies have linked prolonged PFAS exposure to cancer, thyroid disorders, decreased fertility, and elevated cholesterol.  

“The substances being discharged by the Mine into nearby surface waters present a great environmental and health concern because of their potential to persist forever in the environment,” says Sarah Rubenstein, staff attorney with Great Rivers Environmental Law Center. Great Rivers has significant experience bringing Clean Water Act citizen suits, and is providing legal representation to Sierra Club and Prairie Rivers in this matter to address the dangerous situation at the Mine and the surrounding environment.

Sierra Club Illinois and the Prairie Rivers Network’s notice states that samples collected by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency from nearby surface water locations found concentrations of PFAS higher than EPA health advisory levels, Illinois drinking water health advisory levels, and Illinois draft groundwater standards. Sugar Camp’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit does not authorize any discharges into the nearby watersheds, nor does it allow for the discharge of PFAS or other toxic substances found to be present in the nearby watersheds. 

“The irresponsible discharge of highly toxic chemicals into the ground and surrounding waterways is a great concern to myself and anyone with private water supplies in the area. Extensive, long-term testing must be made available to landowners,” says Tabitha Tripp, an Illinois landowner and environmental advocate. “Foresight must be held accountable for poisoning water supplies – this is not a burden that should fall on the landowners of Illinois. Sadly, once a water source is contaminated with a forever chemical like PFAS, the expense to purify water is simply not affordable. Mining coal is not worth the damage it’s doing to us and the land and to our health.”

“Sugar Camp Mine discharges to tributaries of Akin Creek and Middle Fork Big Muddy River and to the Akin Creek and Middle Fork Big Muddy River bodies of water directly,” says Andrew Rehn, Water Resources Engineer with Prairie Rivers Network. “As Illinois phases out the type of firefighting foam used under the recently passed PFAS Reduction Act, it is critical that we hold polluters accountable when violations occur in order to protect local watersheds and the health of nearby communities.”

You can view the filing here.


Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

Protecting the Ozark National Scenic Riverways

Great Rivers has raised legal concerns about a National Park Service plan to manage illegally created roads and trails within the Ozark National Scenic Riverways.

The Scenic Riverways are a highlight of Missouri’s natural resources and a favorite destination of over a million nature enthusiasts each year. The clean, cool waters of its rivers feed from jewel-toned blue springs, offering once-in-a-lifetime experiences to canoers, swimmers, and fishermen. At last count the waters and the surrounding park provided habitat to a known 112 species of fish, 197 species of birds, over 1,000 varieties of plants, and 58 types of mammals. 

The cool waters (58 degrees Fahrenheit) of Alley Spring in the Ozark Scenic National Riverways provide delicate habitat for colorful Ozark fishes like the southern redbelly dace, the Ozark sculpin, and the bleeding shiner.

Unfortunately, the ecological stability of the Riverways has come under assault by the proliferation of illegal roads and trails traversing this fragile and precious park. Largely created by horse riders and off-road and all-terrain vehicles leaving the designated trails and roadways of the park, these illegal traces, river crossings and trails can cause significant disturbances to creek beds, water quality, vegetation, and wildlife.

Even more unfortunately, the Park Service seeks in their proposed plan to standardize and make legal this destructive abuse of the park by authorizing many of these illegal roads and trails.

Great Rivers staff believes that the Scenic Riverways should be enjoyed – but they must be enjoyed responsibly. Our use of these pristine areas must be undertaken with care in a way that will safeguard them today and for future generations.

Great Rivers has raised several concerns of the legality of the Park Services’ process and proposed plan and its alternatives. Our concerns include the Park Service’s failure to honestly assess the environmental impacts of their proposed plan and their improper prioritization of recreation within the parks over resource protection when the parks are already taxed by illegal roads and trails.

NPS estimates that 1.3 million guests enjoy the Scenic Riverways each year.

We further allege that the Park Service attempts to justify its decision to increase user access at the expense of resource protection by presenting a false choice to the public in their proposed plan.  The Park Service hides behind a lack of funding and mismanagement that has resulted in the degraded condition from illegal roads and trails, while claiming that somehow increasing trails and roads subject to funding will result in better protection.

If lack of funding caused the expanse of illegal trails and roads in the first place, it is unclear how NPS’s plan that authorizes increased trails and roads in the park will result in better on-the-ground conditions at the parks.

An improper plan won’t just be irresponsible — it will be counterproductive. Through posing threats to water quality and wildlife populations of the park, a bad plan would reduce the parks’ ecological significance and their ephemeral qualities that make them special to so many.

Great Rivers raised these concerns in comments on behalf of the Missouri Confluence Waterkeeper, a nonprofit organization with the goal of providing drinkable, fishable, and swimmable water to all residents of the State of Missouri.

You can read the full comments here.


Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

How to Make the Most of Nature: Activities and Outings for Families to Prevent Nature-Deficit Disorder

Spending time in nature has proven to be a lifesaver during the pandemic — after all, exploring local parks, hiking trails, or even just relaxing in your backyard are all safe ways to escape being stuck inside while maintaining social distancing guidelines. But as it turns out, being outside has a whole host of physical and mental health benefits that will last long after COVID has passed.

The benefits of immersing oneself in nature are practically endless. At the same time, many people in modern society suffer from something called nature-deficit disorder — a stark lack of green spaces and outdoor experiences.

To remedy this problem, try a few of these activities with your child or the whole family.

Start Finding Nature (and Enhancing Play) at Home

Help your children see the joy and wonder of nature right in their own backyard.

Rainy Day Outdoor Activities for Kids
How to Teach a Kid to Safely Climb a Tree
DIY Mud Kitchen in One Weekend

Venture Farther for Nature Immersion and Recreation

Expand their horizons in nearby parks and recreational areas to help them connect with nature.

Kayaking with Kids: A Beginner’s Guide
4 Tips When Mountain Biking with Your Child
Learning the Ropes: A Beginner’s Guide to Rock Climbing with Kids
How to Make Hiking Fun with Kids

Add an Unexpected Dash of Adventure

When the time is right, add a dose of outdoor adventure.

The Ultimate Treasure Hunt – Geocaching with Kids
How to Start Stargazing with Your Kids
How to Safely Observe Wildlife from Your Home
The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Camping
How to Build Your Own Backyard Zipline

The best protection against nature deficit disorder is a daily dose of outdoor adventure.
Fortunately, you’ll find plenty of opportunities to start exploring here. You’ll also find inspiration
for encouraging everyone in your family to embrace the backyard — and beyond.

Photos from Pixabay and Pexels

Attorney Spotlight – Sarah Rubenstein

What engendered your passion for the environment?

From a very young age I’ve been a lover of the natural world and animals. My parents taught us by example – through gardening, hiking, spending time outside, appreciating nature. When I learned about environmental degradation in high school, I decided to study the subject in college and then to devote my career to protecting the natural world. I remain firmly committed to the idea that all of the world’s living things and creatures deserve protection. As humans, we need to live in unity with our natural world. And I believe that holds true for all people, no matter their nationality, gender, skin color, age or socio-economic position.

What inspired you to become a lawyer?

Many years ago I worked as an intern for the Environmental Defense Fund in DC. The organization was made up of a group of attorneys and scientists working together to better the natural world. I was struck during my time at EDF that the attorneys seemed to have the most luck making headway in accomplishing their goals. I decided to go to law school to marry my interest in protecting the natural world with what I observed at EDF. 

What do you hope to accomplish through your work at Great Rivers?

I hope to use my skills in litigation and environmental law to protect our natural world. I hope to bring environmental justice to the many who have shouldered an unfair burden. I hope to improve air quality in our region. I hope to help force Missouri’s utilities to transition away from coal and towards renewables. I hope to protect the magnificent rivers of our region. I hope to protect the species that are threatened or endangered in our area. I could go on and on, as there is so much important work still to be done! I hope my work will make a difference in getting us further towards those goals.

What has been the most rewarding case you’ve taken on? What cases are you most proud of your involvement in?

Our work to force Missouri to comply with Title VI has been very rewarding. For too long, Missouri has ignored legal requirements to operate with transparency, to involve the impacted public in its decision-making processes, and to consider the cumulative impacts of its decisions on Missouri citizens. It was very rewarding to have our Title VI complaint against the state be accepted by EPA, and to see EPA issue preliminary findings of discrimination. It will be exciting to see what kinds of change our complaint brings about in how Missouri protects the environment.

What’s been the most difficult case you’ve worked on?

We are working to help a neighborhood organization in Hyde Park, in North St. Louis, address pollution caused by a nonconforming industrial business located in their otherwise residential neighborhood. As a result of the company’s apparent lack of respect for local zoning and land-use laws, and the City’s utter failure to enforce its ordinances, the company has been able to continue operating improperly, disposing of waste in the neighborhood. We have tried for the last several years to convince the company to clean up its act, or the City to take action, but the neighbors have seen no change. As a result, we are currently preparing to bring litigation against the company. While litigation will be costly and time consuming, hopefully it will bring justice to the neighbors we represent. I wish this matter did not take so long to rectify, and remain concerned that the failure of the company and the City to act is based on the fact that the neighborhood is composed of predominantly low-income, minority residents.

Do you see any intersectionality between environmental law and other issue areas?

There is intersectionality with so much of what we do. Our work intersects with race relations, and that area thankfully appears to be gaining more deserved attention after George Floyd and with our current presidential administration. Our work intersects with energy policy and law as our country grapples with climate change and how to respond to it. Our work intersects with food justice and the agricultural industry, as we reckon with how farming policy impacts our natural world.

What do you like to do when you’re not at work?

My husband and I love to travel. I also love horses and ride competitively. I own three lovely horses of my own and compete with them in my spare time in competitions around the country.

Are there any memorable moments you’ve had with a client and/or situations you’ve witnessed that stuck with you?

I have had many. One that sticks out involved a family we helped who was experiencing a serious problem with contaminated wastewater discharges emanating from a nursing home located immediately adjacent to their rural home. Although the nursing home was connected to the local town sewer system, it utilized a system of holding tanks to regulate its discharge to the town system, which appeared to be grossly undersized for the size of the expanding town. During significant rain events, the holding tanks at the nursing home would fill up, and raw wastewater would literally spray like a fountain out of the nursing home’s backup pipes, onto our client’s property, eventually flowing into nearby creeks. This prevented our client from being able to use her property to the fullest, or to allow her grandchildren to play outside when visiting her. We helped bring the nursing home into compliance, which served to protect our client, as well as the nearby creek, from subsequent discharges from the nursing home. When I spoke with our client after the improvements were made, she started to cry tears of joy and appreciation for our efforts. That moment made me realize how important and meaningful what we do is to people.

Retiring but not Slowing Down

Staff held a dinner this summer following Henry’s last day. From Left to Right: Linden Mueller, Katy Henry, David Henry, Henry Robertson, Dianne Klein, Bob Menees, Alice Menees, Sage Menees, Bruce Morrison

After more than 15 years working at Great Rivers to bring renewable energy to Missouri, Henry Robertson has decided to continue that work in a new capacity – as a volunteer.

We will miss his daily presence in the office but are delighted he’ll still be at our side, counseling our strategy and assisting our climate and energy work.

And we can’t wait to celebrate him. This year the Board of Directors has decided to award the Lewis C. Green Environmental Service Award to two outstanding individuals who have given a lifetime of service to the protection of Missouri’s environment and public health. Henry is to be one of those individuals.

We hope you will join us this year at the Fall Awards Celebration as we honor his career of service protecting all of us from the devastating threat of climate change. His dedication is an inspiration.

You can learn more about the event and purchase tickets here.

Meet our 2021 Interns

Cynthia Boxerman – Legal Intern, Summer

Cynthia is a licensed Missouri attorney who served as a Public Defender in the St. Louis City Trial Office and as trial counsel for the Missouri Department of Social Services. She will return to Loyola University Chicago this fall to finish coursework for a Master of Science in Environmental Science and Sustainability. She is married with three adult children and enjoys gardening, making stained glass windows, fusing glass and spending time with her family and dog Dolly.


Matthew Boyd – Legal Intern, Summer

Matthew is a sophomore at Washington University in St Louis pursuing a double major in Environmental Policy and Sociology. Matthew’s passion for the environment and social justice lead him to Great Rivers where he hopes to help make a difference in his hometown and after Great Rivers he would like to do the same in more places. In his free time, Matthew primarily enjoys sports, writing and listening to music (check out the DJs at KWUR 90.3 FM!) with him saying that seeing Tyler, the Creator in concert was a highlight of his life.


Nicole Franki – Legal Intern, Summer

Nicole is a rising 2L at Columbia Law School. Hailing from Rochester, NY, she graduated from the University of Rochester with B.A.s in environmental studies and political science. Nicole hopes to use her law degree to participate in the environmental justice movement and assist the effort to equitably protect communities from environmental harm. In her free time, she enjoys playing the piano and trying out vegan recipes.


Kat King – Legal Intern, Summer

Kat is a student at the UC Berkley School of Law. Originally from Tampa, Florida, she graduated from the University of Virginia with a B.A. in Political Philosophy, Policy, and Law. Kat worked as a management consultant in San Francisco before heading to law school. She hopes to use her law degree to support communities fighting for environmental health and environmental justice. When not working, Kat enjoys exploring northern California and beyond with her husband, rock climbing, hiking, biking, camping, and skiing. At home, she dabbles in vegan cooking and meticulously tends her houseplants and container garden.


Chase Lindemann – Legal Intern, Summer

Chase graduated from the University of Rochester in 2019 with a BA in Economics and Physics, and Minors in Mathematics, Legal Studies, and Computer Science. Chase will be entering his third year of law school at the University of Minnesota in the fall and hopes to continue working in public interest environmental law upon graduating. In his free time, Chase enjoys going on walks and hikes, listening to podcasts or music, and watching New York sports teams disappoint.


Maya Mehrotra – Outreach and Development Intern, Summer

Maya is a rising sophomore at Washington University in St. Louis where she is pursuing a B.S. in Environmental Engineering. She is passionate about social justice and hopes to one day use her degree to tackle both environmental and social issues. When not studying in St. Louis, she is in her hometown of Chicago where she is probably running, reading, painting, or chasing after her dog. Maya has always loved the outdoors and has lately spent her free time stargazing at national parks. 


Gwen Short – Legal Intern, Summer

Gwen is working towards her J.D. at Moritz College of Law at The Ohio State University. Before law school, she worked as an outdoor educator in California teaching scientific concepts, facilitating team building activities, and having a lot of fun in the outdoors. Gwen viewed this work as advocacy for our planet and has now shifted from educational advocacy to legal advocacy. In her free time, Gwen likes to play rugby, go on runs, and is learning to garden.


Sasha St. Juste – Legal Intern, Summer

Sasha is a rising 3L student at Vermont Law School obtaining a J.D and Masters in Energy Regulation and Law. She is interested in implementing energy solutions to low-income communities as a means to address the disparate environmental impact on these communities. While living in New York, Sasha spends her off time making and decorating candles as a peaceful hobby.


Sirapan To-in – Legal and Outreach and Development Intern, Summer

Sirapan worked in the field of combating human trafficking and IUU in the seafood supply chain in Thailand prior to coming to the U.S. and worked at the University’s Interdisciplinary Environmental Law Clinic during his study at WashULaw. When he’s not working with Great Rivers, Sirapan also works as a farm justice intern at the Missouri Coalition for the Environment. Sirapan enjoys creating designs, infographics, and posters for educational purposes. In his free time, Sirapan can be found going on bike rides and camping trips.


Zachary Stevens – Legal Intern, Summer

Zach is going into his senior year at Lindenwood University in St. Louis and will be graduating in 2022 with a B.A. in Political Science and a minor in Biology. Born and raised in St. Louis, he has enjoyed the outdoors since early childhood. He is primarily interested in the protection of wildlife around the state, and in fighting for stronger environmental policies throughout the Midwest. Outside of work, Zach is most often found on a tennis court or hiking somewhere in Missouri. 


Andrea White – Legal Intern, Summer

Andrea graduated with a B.S. in Environment and Sustainability from Cornell University and will be a second-year law student next fall at UC Berkeley. While growing up in southern California, she realized the importance of environmental protections, which inspired her to pursue a career in environmental law. In her free time, she enjoys running half marathons, reading, and getting bubble tea with her friends.


Wade Wilson – Outreach and Development Intern, Summer

Wade recently graduated from Washington University in St. Louis with a B.A. in Environmental Policy. Growing up in North Carolina, Wade enjoyed spending summers hiking, camping and fishing in the Blue Ridge Mountains, which cultivated his care for the environment. He’s particularly interested in clean energy and its ability to power our lifestyles in an efficient and renewable way. Wade’s hobbies include watching sports, playing violin and guitar, talking about politics, and spending time with friends and family.

Sen. Blunt’s Wildlife Act is a Win for the Environment and for Smart Governance

Bipartisanship is rare these days in Washington, D.C. Given the immense polarization of our politics, it merits celebration when players from both sides of the aisle come together to provide real, tangible solutions to pressing issues. On July 20th, 2021, Senators Martin Heinrich, a New Mexico Democrat, and Roy Blunt, a Republican and the dean of Missouri’s congressional delegation, introduced the Recovering America’s Wildlife Act (RAWA). In a press release, Sen. Blunt’s office claimed that the “landmark bill would make the largest, most significant investment in wildlife and habitat conservation in a generation.” In a world where it can be difficult to get Democrats and Republicans to agree on what to name a post office, the passage of this legislation would be a major accomplishment.

At a time when we are facing a sixth major extinction event and massive habitat degradation, RAWA would lead to big improvements in conservation and restoration efforts nationwide. The Act provides $1.3 billion in annual funding to help protect over 12,000 different species of animals and plants, as well as $97.5 million of additional funds to Tribal nations that oversee 140 million acres of land. Since 2005, each U.S. state and territory has had a State Wildlife Action Plan, developed by scientists and stakeholders and approved by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. RAWA ensures that conservation efforts will be in accordance with these Plans, to “identify specific strategies to restore the populations of species of greatest conservation need.” Notably, the bill would direct the money collected by fines for environmental malpractice towards wildlife conservation and recovery. RAWA aims to target these funds to facilitate the recovery of endangered or threatened plants and animals under the Endangered Species Act. All together, these provisions would go a long way towards protecting wildlife and repairing the damage humans have done to it.

At a time when we are facing a sixth major extinction event, the Act provides $1.3 billion in annual funding to help protect over 12,000 different species of animals and plants

Senator Blunt believes that RAWA will help the state preserve its natural beauty, stating, “Missouri is home to some of the best hunting, fishing, and outdoor recreation our country has to offer. We can better protect our land, waterways, and wildlife by encouraging states, territories, and Tribes to make significant contributions to voluntary conservation efforts. I’m proud to help introduce this bill that will help preserve our nation’s wildlife for future generations.” Other Missouri leaders and groups have endorsed the bill, including Missouri Department of Conservation director Sara Parker Pauley, Bass Pro Shops CEO Johnny Morris, and the Conservation Federation of Missouri. 

The companion bill in the House was introduced by Representatives Jeff Forntenberry (R-Nebraska) and Debbie Dingell (D-Michigan). Rep. Fortenberry is a conservative member of the Republican Study Committee while Rep. Dingell is in the left-wing Congressional Progressive Caucus. Despite the many political differences between the four lead sponsors, they recognize the necessity of quick and robust action to conserve nature. In the House, Kansas City, MO Democrat Emmanuel Cleaver, Springfield, MO Republican Billy Long, and Taylorville, IL Republican Rodney Davis are all co-sponsors of the legislation. We hope that more regional Congressmembers of both parties sign on in support.

Despite the many political differences between the four lead sponsors, they recognize the necessity of quick and robust action to conserve nature

At the national and international level, RAWA is backed by a wide variety of organizations with diverse political leanings. The National Wildlife Federation, Nature Conservancy, Backcountry Hunters & Anglers, Bat Conservation International, The Wildlife Society, The National Audubon Society and ConservAmerica all have come out in support of the legislation.

It remains to be seen whether RAWA will be a stand alone bill or will be attached to the annual budget or a potential infrastructure package. Given that the latter two are likely to be partisan votes, Great Rivers believes that an overwhelming, bipartisan vote in favor of singular legislation would be the best way to demonstrate the government’s commitment to wildlife conservation. Nonetheless, it is very encouraging to see Republicans and Democrats working together to protect wildlife, and we hope that this is a sign of more environmental action to come. 

All images were retrieved from Wikimedia Commons, and provided by Yinan Chen, the U.S. Senate, and Steve Hillebrand respectively.


Wade Wilson recently graduated from Washington University in St. Louis with a B.A. in Environmental Policy. He’s particularly interested in clean energy and its ability to power our lifestyles in an efficient and renewable way. Wade’s hobbies include watching sports, playing the violin and guitar, talking about politics and spending time with friends and family.

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free and reduced-fee services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

Great Rivers Submits Comments to EPA on Lead and Copper Rule Revision

Madeline Middlebrooks
Madeline Middlebrooks

Madeline Middlebrooks, our Equal Justice Works Fellow, has been working on lead contamination issues present in St. Louis area schools. Across the United States, children are being exposed to dangerously high levels of lead at school. Children who attend schools in the St. Louis area also suffer this injustice. This occurs because, under US EPA’s 1991 Lead and Copper Rule, if a school receives its water from a public water utility, it is not required to test for lead in potable fixtures inside the school building. Lead may leach into drinking water after the water enters the building.

To address these concerns EPA is proposing to revise its Lead and Copper Rule. The newly proposed rule is a step in the right direction. Under the proposed rule public water utilities will be required to conduct sampling at elementary schools one time over a five-year period and upon request thereafter. Regrettably, the new rule does not require any remedial action if high levels of lead are found, nor does the proposed rule require any testing for lead in secondary schools.

Although EPA’s proposed revisions to the Lead and Copper Rule are a step in the right direction, they are insufficient to protect children from lead exposure.

Madeline has submitted formal comments to EPA and has engaged EPA at community listening sessions over these deficiencies. If EPA does not cure the defects in the proposed rule, children still will be exposed to dangerous lead levels while attending school.

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free and reduced-fee services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

New Report Exposes Shortcomings in Missouri Utilities’ Climate Pledges

Sierra Club, one of our clients, released a report in April called The Dirty Truth about Utility Climate Pledges. It grades the nation’s biggest utilities on how they’re doing at retiring coal plants, renouncing natural gas plants and moving to clean energy. It gave Ameren Missouri a “D.” Evergy and Associated Electric Cooperatives, Inc, each got an “F.” The best a Missouri utility could do was a “C,” earned by Empire District Electric.

Missouri burns more coal for electricity than any other state except Texas. Great Rivers is before the Missouri Public Service Commission on several fronts, working for change so that our utilities wisely invest more of our ratepayer dollars in wind and solar.

Missouri burns the second most coal of any state in the country.

Ameren’s 20-year plan

On this matter, we represent Sierra Club, Natural Resources Defense Council, Dutchtown South Community Corporation, New Northside Missionary Baptist Church, and the Missouri NAACP.  Although solar and wind power are cheaper, Ameren still insists that it’s the exception to this rule – if it is, it’s only because its coal plants are old and lack up-to-date pollution controls. Ameren claims it needs coal for reliability since solar and wind are intermittent, but it is missing the accelerating trend toward energy storage, especially utility-scale batteries they can use when the sun is down and the wind doesn’t blow.

Ameren is running a risk by trying to hang on to its coal plants while adding renewables: it has no right to make its customers pay for more power-generating capacity than they need, and we oppose its efforts to do so.  At the same time, Ameren is taking strides in providing clean, renewable energy to low income and minority communities.  We support these efforts.

Great Rivers supports the strides some local utilities are making to provide clean, renewable energy to low income and minority communities.

Ameren rate case

In this PSC proceeding we represent Sierra Club. Ameren is asking for a hefty additional ratepayer contribution of just under $300 million. It has just brought two large wind farms into service, but it says this will add minimally to our bills because most of the cost will be offset by federal tax credits and sales into the wholesale market.

Ameren also wants to expand its Community Solar Program, which lets customers subscribe to new solar facilities even if they can’t put solar panels on their roofs. They would make it much more widely available and allow people to subscribe for 100% of their usage instead of the current 50% limit. We support this.

Community solar programs make renewable energy more accessible to homeowners.

Evergy’s plan to electrify transportation

Evergy wants permission to expand incentives and charging stations for residential and commercial electric vehicles (EVs). We strongly support EVs if they will be able to charge with clean energy. Our clients Sierra Club and Natural Resources Defense Council will be collaborating on expert testimony, which is sure to include recommendations on public transit and EV accessibility at multi-family dwellings and in lower- and moderate-income communities.

Evergy’s 20-year plan

Every three years each regulated utility updates its long-range plan. This coming year is Evergy’s turn. As with Ameren, we will be urging faster retirement of coal units, more wind and solar, and energy storage to smooth out the peaks and dips in sun and wind.

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free and reduced-fee services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

Great Rivers Engages MDNR to Improve Missouri’s Air Quality

These past several months Great Rivers has been working hard to protect air quality throughout Missouri. The cumulative effects of exposure to multiple sources of air pollution – especially in the young and the elderly – increases one’s risk of developing asthma and other respiratory illnesses, cancer, and heart disease. We also sadly learned this last year that these types of cumulative air exposures increase the likelihood of worse outcomes after contracting COVID-19.

Air pollution is a threat multiplier, including for symptoms of COVID-19.

In the last year we have engaged the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) on sixteen draft air pollution permits, as well as on proposed amendments to the State’s plan to implement the federal Clean Air Act. Our work has taken us to North St. Louis, South St. Louis, Kansas City, Howardville, Marston, Springfield and Farmington.

In the last year Great Rivers has engaged MDNR on 16 draft air pollution permits… Our work has taken us to North St. Louis, South St. Louis, Kansas City, Howardville, Marston, Springfield and Farmington.

Highlighting some recent work in Springfield, Missouri, the Springfield City Utilities sought to renew its operating permit and to amend one of its construction permits for its coal-fired power plant. While many of Missouri’s coal plants are located in rural areas, the Springfield coal plant is located upwind from Missouri’s third largest city. 25,767 Missourians, including 7,020 children, live within three miles of the plant, and nine schools are located within a three-mile radius. A twelve-mile radius from the plant captures most of Springfield, which has a population totaling 289,636 Missourians, of which 73,796 are children.

Springfield sits downwind from a coal plant, jeopardizing local health.
(Photo via Real Window Creative/Shutterstock)

In the draft permit, MDNR proposed dropping any requirement that the facility monitor for emissions of hazardous air pollutants. Because of the risk of serious harm to the health of the many Missourians living nearby in the case of an accidental emission of hazardous pollutants from the Facility, Great Rivers, on behalf of our client Sierra Club, is fighting to retain the hazardous air monitoring requirements for the Facility. We have also asked DNR to bolster monitoring and record keeping requirements at the Facility.

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free and reduced-fee services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

Local Podcast Highlights Community Reaction to Great Rivers’ EPA Complaint

Pictured: Satellite image of the Kinder Morgan Terminal (via googlemaps)

Lauren Brown and Jia Lian Yang’s podcast, We Live Here, focuses on St. Louis stories about race and class. Great Rivers is featured in the following two episodes: Part I: Tenant Rights & Resistance and Part II: Civil Rights & Cumulative Impacts.

For nearly nine months, Great Rivers Environmental Law Center has been involved in a Title VI proceeding pending before the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”). The complaint was filed against the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (“MDNR”) and alleges that MDNR’s issuing of an air pollution permit to Kinder Morgan Transmix LLC discriminated against low-income communities of color. It also addresses MDNR’s long-term failure to fulfill expectations outlined by federal nondiscrimination laws. In their latest two part series, Lauren Brown and Jia Lian Yang, hosts of the St. Louis podcast We Live Here, sat down with Great Rivers’ attorneys Sarah Rubenstein and Bob Menees, as well as community organizer Myisha Johnson, to discuss the complaint, the impact of polluters, and what EPA’s findings mean for the future of all Missourians.

Myisha Johnson is a St. Louis local and an advocate for tenants rights. She is featured in We Live Here‘s latest two part series: Part I: Tenant Rights & Resistance and Part II: Civil Rights & Cumulative Impacts. View this photo, episodes, and more on We Live Here‘s page with St. Louis Public Radio. You can listen to the episodes through the links above or wherever you get your podcasts.

Yang introduces Johnson as “a tenant living in South St. Louis City [and] one of the three working members of State Streets Tenants Resistance.” She and her fellow members are usually busy educating tenants and fighting for concrete gains such as a Tenants Bill of Rights. However, lately she finds herself up against not just landlords, but polluters and state agencies. The Kinder Morgan facility in her neighborhood poses major health risks — ones Johnson has experienced firsthand. She lost both of her parents to cancer and was diagnosed with stage two cancer herself. But this was not just a family issue. Myisha “noticed that some of the neighbors would get lumps and bumps all over their body… [and] that a lot of children that were growing up in that community had learning disabilities.” Animals started dying too and although the trend was clear, she couldn’t find an explanation. Johnson then learned that “polluting companies,” such as Kinder Morgan, “were being issued permits in her neighborhood, with little to no community engagement from the state.” Usually, “predominantly Black and brown St. Louis City neighborhoods weren’t informed” about facilities or permits.

“But this time, Great Rivers Environmental Law Center was paying attention and [wasn’t] going to let it slide.”

– Jia Lian Yang, We Live Here

Myisha felt excited that there was finally someone to hold polluters and state agencies accountable and to amplify the community’s voice. Within a few months of filing the complaint, EPA made its preliminary finding that MDNR had indeed “violated federal civil rights regulations.” Great Rivers Attorney Sarah Rubenstein felt a similar excitement as she reflected on the community impact of the finding.

“We are providing an important mechanism for members of the public to engage with the state,” she said.

The Great Rivers attorneys hope that this increased engagement leads the state to look at cumulative impacts instead of working on a case-by-case basis. Attorney Bob Menees believes that “MDNR should be doing a lot more in urban areas as it relates to their permitting program to ensure that they’re providing meaningful access to communities that are disproportionately impacted by health impacts.”

“Our hopes would be if EPA compels DNR to make these changes, that it results in first ensuring that there isn’t discrimination and then secondarily, meaningful involvement of all people in environmental processes and programs.”

Bob Menees

Maya Mehrotra is a rising sophomore at Washington University in St. Louis studying environmental engineering. She is passionate about social justice and hopes to one day use her degree to tackle both environmental and social issues. When not studying in St. Louis, she can be found in her hometown, Chicago, where she is probably running, reading, or stargazing.

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free and reduced-fee services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

President’s Letter

What a difference a year makes! Fourteen months ago, the world went virtual, as did Great Rivers. But it was no time for us to go slow. The federal government’s environmental rollbacks were rolling along, one after another.

One year later the wind is at our backs. At the federal level, protecting and preserving the environment is front and center, as is protecting the public health and standing up for environmental justice. The federal government is rolling back the former administration’s environmental rollbacks, one after another. At the state level, we are pushing back hard against the all too often, half-hearted efforts of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources.

Within our law center, we are coming out of the pandemic as strong as ever. All staff who were with us at the start of the pandemic are with us today, and our work load needs every one of them, and then some! There are urgent needs in all six of our programs.

Our work to protect our lands, air, and waters these past fourteen months would not have happened without you. We always are grateful that you make us go. As we transition back to our downtown office from our home offices, please do stop by to say hello. We can’t wait to see you in person soon.

Bruce

Bruce Morrison Smiles

Bruce Morrison is an environmental attorney and serves as President of Great Rivers Environmental Law Center

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free and reduced-fee services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.

EPA finds MDNR Non-Discrimination Requirements Inadequate

Pictured: A hand-painted sign decorates a community garden in the Dutchtown neighborhood in St. Louis, MO. Residents of the community experience elevated health risks such as cancer as a result of increased exposure to air toxics.

Last fall, Great Rivers Environmental Law Center, on behalf of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Missouri State Conference, the NAACP St. Louis City Branch, and the Dutchtown South Community Corporation, filed a complaint with the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) against the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (“MDNR”) claiming that the state agency discriminated against low-income and minority communities in issuing an air pollution permit to Kinder Morgan Transmix LLC located in the Dutchtown neighborhood of St. Louis City. The complaint also alleges that MDNR has failed to comply with federal nondiscrimination laws and regulations in its various environmental programs.  EPA accepted the complaint for investigation.

The facility whose permit the complaint centered around is just one of many MDNR has granted “permission to pollute” in an industrial corridor immediately adjacent to the Dutchtown neighborhood in St. Louis, MO.

During EPA’s investigation of the complaint, EPA afforded MDNR the opportunity to work with Great Rivers and the community groups they represent through alternative dispute resolution, but MDNR refused to cooperate.  EPA also offered MDNR the opportunity to informally resolve the complaint with EPA, but the agency likewise refused this opportunity. Instead, MDNR attempted to rectify the issues raised in the complaint haphazardly by creating insufficient internal policies to cover up that it had over the years fallen woefully short of meeting its obligations regarding federal nondiscrimination laws and regulations.

Despite MDNR’s last minute and disingenuous efforts, on March 31, 2021, EPA issued its preliminary findings that MDNR has failed to comply with its obligations under the federal nondiscrimination laws and EPA’s nondiscrimination regulations to have and implement a nondiscrimination program.

EPA concluded that MDNR ignored concerns raised over the years by Great Rivers about its failure to have in place a nondiscrimination program consistent with its longstanding legal obligations.

“We appreciate EPA’s preliminary findings in response to our complaint. For years, we have raised these issues with MDNR, but the agency has consistently told us we are wrong. It is reassuring to know that the federal agency responsible for ensuring MDNR does not discriminate against low income and minority communities in its environmental programs agrees with our position,” said Bob Menees, Staff Attorney with Great Rivers.

EPA’s preliminary findings set forth a lengthy list of significant steps that MDNR must take to come into compliance with nondiscrimination laws and regulations. When implemented, these procedures will benefit all Missourians.

“We are hopeful that our efforts will result in MDNR being required to establish a robust nondiscrimination program that better protects Missouri’s low-income and minority communities from environmental racism and will set the stage for achieving environmental justice within the state,” said Sarah Rubenstein, Staff Attorney with Great Rivers.

MDNR has 50 days to respond formally to EPA’s preliminary findings. Unless MDNR reverses course and agrees to participate in alternative dispute resolution or informal resolution, EPA will continue its investigation into whether MDNR’s air permitting program is discriminatory and causes a disparate impact on Missouri’s minority and low-income communities.

According to Reverend Elston K. McCowan, 1st Vice President & Environmental Justice Committee Chair of the NAACP St. Louis City Branch, “MDNR has a policy and procedure that ensures public input is kept to a minimum. We believe that these practices are discriminatory against minority participation in the process. We have an absolute right to have a seat at the table, especially when it comes to the environment.”

Great Rivers Environmental Law Center is a Missouri-based public interest law firm that provides free and reduced-fee services to individuals, organizations and citizen groups working to protect the environment and public health. We receive no government funding and rely on donations to sustain our work.